Precisa ter instalado o JavaAplet
Precisa ter instalado o JavaAplet
Precisa ter instalado o JavaAplet
Precisa ter instalado o JavaAplet

History of Portuguese Literature Origins of Portuguese Literature The Portuguese Language Oral Literature Fiction Lyricism
Travel Literature Cantigas de amigo Historiography Doctrinal Prose




"Os óculos do poeta Álvaro de Campos, heterónimo de Fernando Pessoa" (The Glasses of the Poet Álvaro de Campos, a heteronym of Fernando Pessoa) (1980) by Costa Pinheiro [b. 1932]

Following on from Amadis de Gaula (14C), chivalrous novels continued to proliferate well into the sixteenth century (Crónica do Imperador Clarimundo, (Chronicle of the Emperor Clarimundus), 1522, by the future historian João de Barros, Memorial das Proezas da Segunda Távola Redonda,  (Record of the Exploits of the Second Round Table), 1567, by Jorge Ferreira de Vasconcelos, Palmeirim de Inglaterra, 1567, by Francisco de Morais). Another type of fiction was to develop in parallel to this, that of the pastoral novel: its Iberian model soon acquired a European resonance with the publication of Diana, in 1559, written in Spanish, by Jorge de Montemor, and continued to find an echo in the seventeenth century in the works of Rodrigues Lobo, a first-rate lyricist and the author of the novels Primavera, Pastor Peregrino and Desenganado, as well as in Lusitânia Transformada by Fernão Álvares do Oriente, and Ribeiras do Mondego, by Elói de Souto Maior.

The seventeenth century also witnessed the development of the paraenetic or exhortatory novel with Os Infortúnios Trágicos da Constante Florinda, 1633, by Gaspar Pires de Rebelo. This scheme was later converted into a progressive allegory, in keeping with the ideals of the Enlightenment, although it remained fictionally similar to the pedagogical path trodden by Fénelon, in works such as O Feliz Independente do Tempo e da Fortuna, 1779, by Padre Teodoro de Almeida, the political content of which had already been presaged by As Aventuras de Diófanes, 1752, by Teresa Margarida da Silva e Horta.

  But, in Portugal, classical fiction really emerged, for each of the three centuries, with Menina e Moça, by Bernardim Ribeiro (16C), Peregrinação, by Fernão Mendes Pinto (17C) and Obras do Diabinho da Mão Furada, an anonymous 18C work, sometimes attributed to António José da Silva, the Jew.

"Passarola" (Bird) (1709) by Bartolomeu de Gusmão. National Archives/Torre do Tombo


A modern nostalgia for a lost ideal world, in the form of an amorous lament (the first of these works), an epic but deconstructed sense of the adventure involved in the discovery and exploration of the physical world (the second), a picaresque stroll through urban and rustic settings, from Évora to Lisbon, and their social apology (the last), clearly illustrate the great wealth and complexity of the novel, which was to be developed further  in the nineteenth century (with the subjective implications of Garrett, the passionate intrigues of Camilo Castelo Branco and the social panorama of Eça de Queirós), and became firmly established in the twentieth century (particularly in the deceptive repetitiveness of Raul Brandão, the urgency of everyday life in Aquilino Ribeiro, Vitorino Nemésio and José Cardoso Pires, or the gentle meanderings through the discourse of memory in António Lobo Antunes and the investigation of meaning through the interplay between man and the idea in José Saramago).



© Instituto Camões, 2001