Precisa ter instalado o JavaAplet
Precisa ter instalado o JavaAplet
Precisa ter instalado o JavaAplet
Precisa ter instalado o JavaAplet

History of Portuguese Literature Origins of Portuguese Literature The Portuguese Language Oral Literature Fiction Lyricism
Travel Literature Cantigas de amigo Historiography Doctrinal Prose


Baroque and Mannerism Classics Existentialism Experimentalism Enlightenment Modernity


Neo-Realism Post-Modernism Realism Romanticism Saudosismo Symbolism




Entrance to the public promenade in the nineteenth century

Oliveira Martins, Ramalho Ortigão, Eça de Queirós, Antero de Quental and Teófilo Braga were some of the most important figures in the so-called “Geração de 70” (the generation of the 1870s), who, on the basis of the “Questão Coimbrã” (the Coimbra Question, a controversial dispute between Castilho and Pinheiro Chagas), inaugurated the “Conferências do Casino”, at which the most important precepts of a new culture were enunciated, largely in connection with the realism emanating from France and Europe.

Both Eça’s novels and Antero’s poetry were closely connected (in the first case completely; in the second case only in part) to this new aesthetics, which is also represented by the novels of Júlio Dinis and the poetry of Cesário Verde (although in the latter case, as also with Gomes Leal and Guerra Junqueiro, there are already clear associations with symbolist poetry).

Realism seeks to reintroduce objectivity into literature (as opposed to the emotional subjectivism of Romanticism), its critical but constructive relationship with society, and the rigorousness of poetic writing, itself based on the rigours of reflection and the careful planning of the composition.


© Instituto Camões, 2001