|History of Portuguese Literature||Origins of Portuguese Literature||The Portuguese Language||Oral Literature||Fiction||Lyricism|
|Travel Literature||Cantigas de amigo||Historiography||Doctrinal Prose|
|Baroque and Mannerism||Classics||Existentialism||Experimentalism||Enlightenment||Modernity|
Eugénio de Castro was the person who introduced Symbolism to
Portugal, with his work Oaristos
Pessanha was certainly the most important poet in this movement, which
was closely bound up with the climate of disquietude and incompleteness arising
from the sort of atmosphere that is typically engendered at the end of a century
and produces essentially idealistic ways of thinking (further exacerbated in
Portugal with the echoes of the “English Ultimatum”).
also represented this tendency in prose (although his impressionistic style
nonetheless had strong links with the naturalistic school), along with Venceslau de Morais (who clearly adopted the theme of escape, which
he was able to realise through his travels to the Far East, eventually settling
in Japan) and other authors more closely connected with the twentieth century, António
Patrício, Carlos Malheiro Dias, Teixeira Gomes and Raul
poetry, António Nobre and Florbela
Espanca are also connected with the elegiac mentality and uncertain
aspirations that are characteristic of symbolism. In the writing of prose, these
produce notable innovations in the narrative, insisting on the materiality of
writing and completely upsetting the traditional mechanisms of representation
I have lost my fantastic castles Like the distant fog that evaporates...
I wanted to win, I wanted to fight, I wanted to defend them:
I broke my spears one by one!
I lost my ships amongst the ice
That sank on a sea of mist...
- So many obstacles! Who could see them? -
I threw myself into the sea and saved none!
I lost my goblet, my ring,
My coat of mail, my steed,
I lost my golden helmet and my gems...
Strange entreaties rise to my lips...
Mountains weigh upon my heart...
I look at my empty hands in alarm...
© Instituto Camões, 2001